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Systems Engineering Design Renaissance



There is systems thinking, process, analysis and management, but how does one actually perform systems design? This text introduces the reader to the design of sustainable complex systems. Specific topics include needs analysis, conceptual physical and implementation architectures, technology, quality, fundamentals of great system designs, selecting system designs, system and design requirements, system element designs, system design verification and validation, sustainability design, and more.

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Instructor Information

The text has 12 chapters, a bibliography and index. Each chapter concludes with Exercises and Additional Reading. The content offers a description of how to perform systems design, examples, and then author comments. The author comments are identified, but occasionally the commentary does slip into the mainstream text. The model of the content structure is based on several years experience advising Undergraduate University students on their senior year systems engineering projects. Each chapter is structured so that an instructor can modify the level of detail offered in their course. Supporting material is readily available via the references that are in the public domain produced by NASA, FAA, DOD and others. The references form the foundation of the systems engineering that led to humans landing on the moon, satellites, air traffic control and many other systems we now enjoy. They are also the foundation of this text.

I offer courses at Drexel University:
Systems Engineering Catalog
Systems Design and Development

Systems Engineering Analysis Description
Catalog
Curriculum

When taking this course, it is strongly recommended that students join INCOSE.org.

Videos

Impact of a Systems Education or Alternate Link or MP4 Version (Drexel)
YouTube (Talking Head)
Impact of a Systems Education or MP4 Version (slides)

Detailed Table of Contents


The table of contents below shows the detailed topics for instructor planning.
Table of Contents
1 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DESIGN
1.1 GREAT SYSTEM DESIGNS
1.2 DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
1.2.1 Fashion Design
1.2.2 Interior Design
1.3 DESIGN THEORY PHILOSOPHIES AND ART
1.3.1 Art
1.3.2 Designers and Medium
1.3.3 Critical Thinking
1.3.4 Scientific Method
1.3.5 Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
1.3.6 Socratic Method
1.3.7 Rational and Action Centric Design Models
1.3.8 Linear and Nonlinear Thinking
1.3.9 Systems Thinking
1.3.10 Systems Theory Thoughts
1.4 PROCESS
1.4.1 Idealized Process
1.4.2 System V-Diagram
1.4.3 Successive Refinement and Abstraction Levels
1.4.4 Creativity and Innovation Process
1.4.5 Process Table
1.4.6 Major Milestones and Artifacts
1.5 SYSTEM DESIGN TERMINOLOGY
1.6 TECHNICAL DIRECTOR ROLE
1.7 SYSTEMS AND DESIGN KEY POINTS
1.8 EXERCISES
1.9 ADDITIONAL READING

2 NEEDS PROBLEM MARKET
2.1 PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS AND ENGINEERING
2.2 PROBLEM SOLVING IN A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
2.3 FILLING A MARKET VOID
2.4 FULFILLING THE NEED
2.5 ASSESSING NEED VALUE
2.6 EXAMINATION OF PREVIOUS ART
2.7 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION
2.7.1 Fundamental Research
2.7.2 Applied Research
2.7.3 Technology Life Cycle
2.7.4 Innovation
2.8 TECHNOLOGY INFUSION
2.9 NEEDS AND WANTS
2.10 STAKEHOLDERS
2.11 NEEDS PROCESS
2.12 NEEDS PROBLEM MARKET SOCRATIC DISCOURSE
2.13 NEEDS PROBLEM MARKET KEY POINTS
2.14 EXERCISES
2.15 ADDITIONAL READING

3 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
3.1 PROCESS
3.2 SOME KEY POINTS
3.3 EXERCISES
3.4 ADDITIONAL READING

4 CONCEPTUAL ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
4.1 EXISTING PRODUCTS AND DESIGNS GENERALIZATIONS DRIVEN
4.2 TECHNOLOGY DRIVEN
4.3 FUNCTION PERFORMANCE DRIVEN
4.4 ALL POSSIBILITIES DRIVEN
4.5 ANALYSIS TO CONSIDER
4.5.1 Eliciting Gathering Requirements
4.5.2 System Boundary
4.5.3 Functions
4.5.4 Operational Scenarios
4.5.5 Life Cycle Cost Considerations
4.6 PUTTING IT TOGETHER
4.7 EARLY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION
4.8 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS
4.9 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SOCRATIC DISCOURSE
4.10 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN KEY POINTS
4.11 EXERCISES
4.12 ADDITIONAL READING

5 TECHNOLOGY AND GREAT DESIGNS
5.1 QUALITY ATTRIBUTES
5.2 TECHNOLOGY VERSUS GOAL DRIVEN SYSTEM DESIGN
5.3 PATENTS AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
5.3.1 What is a Patent
5.3.2 Copyrights and Trademarks
5.3.3 What Can Be Patented
5.3.4 Novelty And Conditions For Obtaining A Patent
5.3.5 General Information
5.3.6 Who May Apply For A Patent
5.3.7 Application For Patent
5.3.8 Specification Description And Claims
5.3.9 Drawing
5.3.10 Models, Exhibits, Specimens
5.4 FORMAL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT
5.5 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY AND ADOPTION
5.6 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY
5.7 TECHNOLOGY PREDICTION
5.8 TECHNOLOGY SELECTION
5.9 FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE ALLOCATION
5.10 MISUSE OF TECHNOLOGY
5.11 TECHNOLOGY INFUSION
5.12 ORGANIZATION LONGEVITY AND RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
5.13 TECHNOLOGY DISCUSSION
5.14 TECHNOLOGY AND GREAT DESIGNS PROCESS
5.15 TECHNOLOGY AND GREAT DESIGN KEY POINTS
5.16 EXERCISES
5.17 ADDITIONAL READING

6 PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
6.1 ALLOCATIONS
6.2 COUPLING AND COHESION
6.3 MODULAR DESIGN
6.4 PERFORMANCE
6.5 SUBSYSTEMS
6.6 BALANCE AND PERFORMANCE LEVELS
6.7 PERFORMANCE ALLOCATION
6.8 CRITICAL FUNCTIONS
6.8.1 Safety Critical Functions and Requirements
6.8.2 Security Critical Functions and Requirements
6.8.3 Performance Critical Functions and Requirements
6.8.4 Reliability Critical Functions and Requirements
6.8.5 Other Critical Functions and Requirements
6.9 INTERFACES
6.10 ALLOCATION COMPLEXITY
6.11 PHYSICAL STRUCTURE
6.11.1 Organizational Topology
6.11.2 Point to Point or Line or Point to Multi Point
6.11.3 Star or Centralized Topology
6.11.4 Bus Topology
6.11.5 Ring Topology
6.11.6 Mesh Topology - Fully or Partially Connected
6.11.7 Tree or Hierarchical Topology
6.11.8 Hybrid Topology and Topology Control
6.11.9 Interface Topology
6.12 REVERSE ENGINEERING A SYSTEM
6.13 IDENTIFYING PHYSICAL DESIGN ALTERNATIVES
6.14 TECHNOLOGY AND ALLOCATION SELECTIONS
6.15 EARLY PHYSICAL DESIGN VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION
6.16 PHYSICAL DESIGN PROCESS
6.17 PHYSICAL DESIGN SOCRATIC DISCOURSE
6.18 PHYSICAL DESIGN KEY POINTS
6.19 EXERCISES
6.20 ADDITIONAL READING

7 IMPLEMENTATION ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
7.1 IDENTIFYING IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN ALTERNATIVES
7.2 LABORATORY ENGINEERING DESIGN
7.3 BENCH AND CATALOG ENGINEERING
7.4 DIFFERENT IMPLEMENTATION DESIGNS
7.5 SUPPLY AND DEMAND DRIVEN DESIGN
7.6 VENDOR PRODUCT EVALUATION AND SELECTION
7.7 MAKE BUY MODIFY
7.8 OFF-THE-SHELF VERSUS IN-HOUSE PURPOSEFUL DESIGN
7.9 EARLY IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION
7.10 IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN PROCESS
7.11 IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN SOCRATIC DISCOURSE
7.12 IMPLEMENTATION KEY POINTS
7.13 EXERCISES
7.14 ADDITIONAL READING

8 DECISION MAKING SELECTING ARCHITECTURES
8.1 FORMAL DECISION MAKING
8.1.1 Advantages Disadvantages List (ADL)
8.1.2 Alternatives Tradeoff Matrix (ATM)
8.1.3 Probability Based Decisions (PBD)
8.1.4 Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)
8.1.5 Design to Cost (DTC)
8.1.6 Design to Production Cost (DTUPC)
8.1.7 Design to Schedule (DTS)
8.1.8 Opportunity Cost Opportunity Lost (OCOL)
8.1.9 Design to Key Discriminators (DKD)
8.1.10 Formal Autocratic Decision (FAD)
8.1.11 Design to Value Systems (DVS)
8.2 GUT LEVEL DECISIONS (GLD)
8.3 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN SELECTION (ADS)
8.3.1 Architecture Design Alternatives
8.3.2 List of Advantages and Disadvantages
8.3.3 Tradeoff Criteria
8.3.4 Tradeoff Matrix
8.3.5 Rating Scale
8.3.6 Sensitivity Analysis
8.3.7 Architecture Design Selection Big Picture
8.3.8 Baseline Reference Method Matrix Ratings
8.3.9 Relative Rank Method
8.3.10 Cost Assessment Method
8.4 PROFIT LOSS STATEMENT AND VALUATION
8.5 INFORMAL DECISION ANALYSIS
8.6 DECISION ANALYSIS PROCESS
8.7 DECISION ANALYSIS KEY POINTS
8.8 EXERCISES
8.9 ADDITIONAL READING

9 ARTIFACTS
9.1 INFORMATION PRODUCTS
9.2 STORYBOARDS
9.3 CAPTURING REQUIREMENTS
9.3.1 Key Requirements
9.3.2 Requirement Types
9.3.3 Characteristics of Good Requirements
9.3.4 Requirement Style Guide
9.3.5 Review Elements
9.4 SPECIFICATIONS
9.4.1 Guiding Principles
9.4.2 Specifications and Requirement Leveling
9.4.3 Requirements Management
9.4.4 Specification Types and Practices
9.4.5 Example Specification Trees
9.5 TRACEABILITY
9.5.1 Very Course Grain Traceability
9.5.2 Course Grain Traceability
9.5.3 Fine Grain Traceability
9.5.4 Very Fine Grain Traceability
9.5.5 Traceability Reviews
9.6 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
9.7 PROCESS
9.8 SOME KEY POINTS
9.9 EXERCISES
9.10 ADDITIONAL READING

10 DEVELOPING SYSTEM ELEMENT DESIGNS
10.1 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT PLAN
10.2 DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION
10.3 SYSTEM DESIGN MONITORING
10.3.1 Technical Interchange Meetings
10.3.2 Working Groups
10.3.3 Action Items
10.3.4 To Do Lists
10.3.5 Goals Advanced Concepts
10.4 DESIGN TEAMS
10.5 DESIGN REVIEWS
10.5.1 System Requirements Review (SRR)
10.5.2 System Design Review (SDR)
10.5.3 Software Specification Review (SSR)
10.5.4 Hardware Requirements Review (HRR)
10.5.5 Preliminary Design Review (PDR)
10.5.6 Critical Design Review (CDR)
10.5.7 Design Review Details and Socratic Method
10.6 DIMINISHING MANUFACTURING SOURCES MATERIAL SHORTAGES
10.7 DESIGN METRICS
10.8 PROCESS
10.9 SOME KEY POINTS
10.10 EXERCISES
10.11 ADDITIONAL READING

11 SYSTEM DESIGN VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION
11.1 SYSTEM TEST COMPLEXITY
11.2 TEST PROGRAM DESIGN
11.3 TEST APPROACHES
11.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TESTS
11.5 TEST V-DIAGRAM
11.6 VERIFICATION
11.6.1 Verification Plans
11.6.2 Verification Procedures
11.6.3 Dry Run Test Execution
11.6.4 Formal Test Execution
11.6.5 Test Report
11.7 VALIDATION
11.8 ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION
11.9 STAGING AREA TESTING
11.10 INSTALLATION AND CHECK OUT TESTING
11.11 VALIDATION OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY TESTING
11.12 VARIOUS TESTS, VERIFICATIONS AND VALIDATIONS
11.12.1 Highly Accelerated Life Test
11.12.2 Safety Tests
11.12.3 Capacity Stress Testing
11.12.4 Destructive Testing
11.12.5 Characterization Tests
11.12.6 Architecture Verification and Validation
11.12.7 Software Intensive System Verification
11.12.8 Interoperability Tests
11.12.9 White Box Testing
11.12.10 All inputs testing
11.12.11 Manufacturing Production Testing
11.12.12 Free Play Testing
11.12.13 Children playing with Toys Testing
11.12.14 Test Focus Groups
11.12.15 Research & Development Test & Evaluation
11.13 SYSTEM DESIGN VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION PROCESS
11.14 SOME KEY POINTS
11.15 EXERCISES
11.16 ADDITIONAL READING

12 SUSTAINABILITY AND DESIGN
12.1 SYSTEM DESIGN BIG PICTURE
12.2 PROGRESS AND DESIGN
12.3 GROWTH AND DESIGN
12.4 SPACE PROGRAM
12.5 INTERNAL VERSUS EXTERNAL SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY
12.6 SUSTAINABILITY V-DIAGRAM
12.7 COMMUNITY SUSTAINABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
12.8 THE SEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE REQUIREMENTS
12.9 NEW SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
12.10 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, INNOVATION, STABILITY
12.11 MAINTENANCE LOGISTICS SAFETY RELIABILITY QUALITY
12.12 LIFE CYCLE COST
12.13 ARCHITECTURE IDENTIFICATION TRADEOFF SELECTION
12.14 VALUE SYSTEMS
12.15 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES LIST
12.16 SUSTAINABILITY TRADEOFF CRITERIA
12.17 SUSTAINABILITY TRADEOFF MATRIX
12.18 SUSTAINABILITY PUSH VERSUS PULL
12.19 MOVING FORWARD
12.20 GOING BACKWARD
12.21 SUSTAINABILITY PRACTITIONERS
12.22 SUSTAINABLE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL EXAMPLE
12.23 SUSTAINABLE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL LESSON
12.24 BEYOND SUSTAINABILITY REGENERATIVE SYSTEMS
12.25 STAKEHOLDERS AND BENEFITS
12.26 USER SUSTAINABILITY RESPONSIBILITIES
12.27 A BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT STORY
12.28 SOME KEY POINTS
12.29 EXERCISES
12.30 ADDITIONAL READING

13 BIBLIOGRAPHY

14 INDEX