COVID-19 Research From
A Systems Perspective

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As of November 2020 this challenge was met. The lesson here is that the same focus if applied to the Return to Life challenge would stop the virus spread and save lives. As of November 2020 that has not yet happened. All research has been focused on the Return to Life need.

04/04/2020, 08/09/2020

The big companies mobilize: Ford . GM we wish them well but we will still need the SMBs.

ICU ventilators



Getinge Sweden 22%
Hamilton Medical USA, Switzerland 22%
Drager Germany 16%
Mindray China 10%
Medtronic Ireland, USA 5%
Lowenstein Medical Germany 3%
Vyaire Medical USA 3%
GE Healthcare USA 3%
Philips Respironics Netherlands 3%
Others 15%

Major manufacturers 2019 [wiki ref].


Mobile ventilators



Drager Germany 24th
Weinmann Medical Germany 21st
Hamilton Medical USA, Switzerland 18th
Vyaire Medical USA 5th
Customs Japan 4th
O Two Canada 4th
Smiths Medical USA 4th
Medtronic Ireland, USA 4th
Air Liquide Healthcare France 3rd
(and 13 other vendors)


  1. SMB Manufactures Ready To Start Now
  2. Hospitals / Healthcare Professionals Outreach
  3. Available Ventilator Designs and Information
  4. Architecture Alternatives
  5. Background Information

SMB Manufactures Ready To Start Now

  1. Bloom Energy . Retooled to repair ventilators
  2. Sea Long Medical Systems Bubble Helmet and other Solutions . Product Brochure . modified to hook into hospital oxygen supply . The helmets were originally designed to run through ventilators, but with the help of Dr. Bhakti Patel, a pulmonologist at the University of Chicago and her mentor, Dr. John Kress, the company has modified them to be hooked up to a hospital’s regular oxygen supply. The team also added a viral filter to avoid exposing others to COVID-19.
  3. Helment Based Ventilation Portal
  4. Helmet Based Ventilation Companies
  5. Companies & Funding sources wanting to Mfg Helmet Based Googledocs . local link
  6. AMRON International - Helmet based system
  7. Extol - Helmet based system
  8. Oregon State University - Trying to enable rapid acceptance and availability of helmets.
  9. DIMAR Medical Devices . Hirol . - Helmet based systems from Italy
  10. NIV Helmet Manufacturing Project to Combat COVID-19 - Facebook grass roots group

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Available Ventilator Designs and Information

This is a source of potential designs for new SMBs wanting to manufacture ventilators.

Helmet Ventilators

Bubble Helmets Italian Hospital Corridors
Bubble Helmets Used By Italian Doctors
University Chicago of Medicine - Helmet Based Ventilation

Helmet Based Designs
Helmet Design on Facebook

Other Ventilator Designs

Analysis of Open Source COVID-19 Pandemic Ventilator Projects spreadsheet of various projects and evaluations, source from links below, includes helmet projects

Ventilator Verification Project . Public-Domain cc0

COVID-19 Ventilator Projects and Resources (open source designs)
VentilAid - open source ventilator from

Raspberry Pi-powered ventilator - Colombia . BBC

University Ventilator Designs

MIT Emergency VentilatorMIT Emergency Ventilator Pop Media Article
University of Florida Open Source Ventilator
Rice University
Illinois Grainger College of Engineering

Robertson Ventilator: Low Tech approach easily sourced and built. University of Mississippi Medical Center makeshift ventilator with supplies found at a hardware store. Dr. Charles Robertson, a UMMC pediatric anesthesiologist, to make the "absolute simplest ventilator we can build with parts available in any city, you don't need special tools to put together and can be done quickly as the need arises. Made with a garden hose, lamp timer and electronic valve, the ventilator, named the Robertson Ventilator, for less than $100, can be assembled in approximately 20 to 30 minutes, meaning a dedicated team of four to five could produce nearly 100 in a day if needed.

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CassBeth Ventilator Architecture Alternatives

  1. Architecture A: High Tech - that is what is available now but unable to fill the need (probably all stocks purchased by elite buyers - no gov oversight)
  2. Architecture B: Middle Tech - most functions stripped out but electronic with circuit boards and chips
  3. Architecture C: Low Tech - electrical no circuit boards maybe just relays or power transistors, with a few caps and resistors, and solenoids
  4. Architecture D: Mechanical Tech - purely mechanical approach rotating wheel in an intake / exhaust valve body perhaps via 3D printing
  5. Architecture E: Helmet Ventilators - The idea is to use a central "air pump control subsystem" service multiple patients that are fitted with a plastic helmet. So perhaps only a few thousand pump subsystems are needed, while the hundreds of thousands of helmets and hose assemblies that would be needed are easier to produce in the time that they are needed. This is based on the bubble helmets seen in Italy.

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Background Information

The following information is from popular media. It does not represent controlled research. However it is input from stakeholders and as part of any systems based solution all reasonable stakeholders need to be heard.

Approaches to ventilation
Wiki: Ventilator . Bag valve mask . Mechanical ventilation . Modes of mechanical ventilation . Continuous positive airway pressure . Non-invasive ventilation

Related ventilation approaches
Wiki: Anesthetic machine

Wiki: Intubation . Tracheotomy

System Operations Stakeholders
Videos: Doc at NYC ICU: Does Covid-19 Really Cause ARDS . COVID-19 What Happens If You Get Coronavirus
Wiki: Respiratory therapist . Critical care nursing

Related Equipment
Wiki: Respirator

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Return To Life

Systems Perspective



Systems Practices

Systems Design

Systems Perspective

System Architecture

Systems Software

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